For sustainability of the environment and food, the European Union is working on new projects with the aim of using resources more efficiently and reducing the formation of greenhouse gases.
Since animal breeding is responsible for the formation of greenhouse gases, it is in this direction that basic animal protein sources are provided by more sustainable nutrients. The consumption of other “new” protein sources for Europe, such as insects and algae, is also discussed, while plant protein sources such as legumes or soy are considered an option. The Sabri Ülker Foundation is on the agenda of these new protein sources based on the views of international reference institutions it cooperates with.
The Sabri Ulker Foundation has been following internationally trusted institutions in order to bring collective balanced nutrition and healthy lifestyle habits since its inception in 2009 and works in cooperation with these institutions. The Foundation brings the scientific and up-to-date information it obtains from these institutions in the field of health and nutrition to the agenda of Turkey through the bulletin “Science Speaks It”. Finally, the Foundation is discussing other “new” protein sources that come to the fore with the goal of using resources more efficiently for sustainability of the environment and foods and reducing the formation of greenhouse gases.
Increasing world population and environmental pollution and accompanying climate changes are bringing many debates. In this direction, the European Union (EU) aims to use resources more efficiently and reduce the formation of greenhouse gases for environmental and food sustainability. As animal husbandry leads to significant greenhouse gas emissions, reducing the consumption of animal foods and increasing agricultural practices are among the important targets. In this direction, basic animal protein sources such as meat, fish and other seafood, milk, and eggs are being spoken of by more sustainable nutrients.
In addition to increasing the production and consumption of vegetable protein sources such as legumes or soy, it is also discussed that consumption of other protein sources, especially insects, and mosses, which are quite “new” and different for the world’s other geographies, consumed in the majority of far eastern countries. Discussions are on the way in which many insects and mosses as the main food source in many Far Eastern countries will be told about Europe as a new source of protein and how legal arrangements for these foods and the potential difficulties of marketing will be overcome.
It is stated that the use of total greenhouse gasses and natural resources released to nature in the case of edible insect breeding will be lower to achieve the amount of protein obtained by conventional animal breeding. It is known that there are about 1,400 species of insects that can be renewed. The content of vitamins and minerals in protein and in addition, fiber, ie fiber-bearing edible insects, can vary depending on the composition, growth phase and nutrition, ie composition of feed. Many edible insect species can be consumed with the belief that they are not safe and adverse health effects for human consumption. The edible insects, on the other hand, may contain biological or chemical contaminants, depending on the growing conditions. Therefore, it is also of great importance to assess the suitability of the edible insect breeding and feeding conditions. For example;
Algae and water plants
Algae are classified broadly as microalgae and macroalgae, “moss”. Algae are plants that multiply faster than traditional plants. Mineral contents such as algae, calcium, iron, and copper can be higher than those planted in the soil. Seaweeds, one of the main food sources in Japan and Korea, can be grown on the farm as well as on the sea. Although some algae species have high protein content and low-fat content, algae are all good sources of vitamins, minerals, and some important essential amino acids.
The algae are added to the sushi, macaroni, mint smoothies or salads; micro-algae is usually used in the production of food supplements/food supplements / nutritional supplements. Another marine plant called water cucumber is nowadays mostly used as feed supplement for domestic animals; In Asia, soup and cucumber are consumed by mixing.
New Herbal Protein Resources
Canola plant is usually used to make edible oil. After the removal of the oil from the seed, a product containing protein of up to 40 percent of the fat-free dry weight can be obtained. This product, also known as rapeseed protein, has been used in animal feed for a long time and has been used limitedly in human nutrition due to its sensory properties such as unwanted taste, flavor, odor, and potential food contaminants. The widespread use of rapeseed protein in human nutrition requires the improvement of sensory properties and processing methods that can control the levels of contaminants/contaminants that may be present.
The EU-sponsored “Protein2Food” project aims to increase the quantity and quality of protein already contained in the vegetable protein sources such as beans, chickpeas, and green lentils, as well as cereals such as amaranth, buckwheat, and kinoa that are already consumed in Europe. It is aimed at the development of better varieties of European climate and land, the improvement in production and harvesting processes and technological improvements to produce vegetable foods such as bakery products, pasta, breakfast cereals and snacks which can be an alternative to the protein content and quality of the meats.
What are the obstacles to new plant proteins and how can they be overcome?
When evaluated in terms of nutritional composition, it is stated that insects and mosses are of comparable importance to fish or red meats. In addition to the nutritional value of these new foods, it is reported that providing social awareness of possible environmental damages to the production processes of animal nutrients may motivate consumption of these protein sources that are new to society. But especially when insects are concerned, “disgusting” may also be involved. European consumers often associate insects with pests and bad hygiene and feel that their taste is also bad.
Discussions continue on the harmonization of legal regulations between EU member states on insects, algae, and other new foods. For example, it should be debated whether all insects are in accordance with the definition of the new foods described above and their regulations, and the health risks that their consumption may cause. In the EU, any food that is not widely consumed in 1997 and earlier is considered “new” and passes strictly on nutritional safety. Therefore, there is a need for further legislation to establish legal regulations for the consumption of new foods in Euro